文学その3

『青空文庫』にある作品を『Google Translate』で英訳してみました。

俳人蕪村:正岡 子規(548-635)/1055

佶屈なりやすき漢語も佶屈ならしめざりき。

It's easy to get angry.

冗漫なりやすき古語も冗漫ならしめざりき。

It's easy to get ridiculous.

野卑なりやすき俗語も野卑ならしめざりき。

Slang that is easy to be slang is also slang.

俗語を用ゐたる一茶の外は漢語にも古語にも彼は匹敵者を有せざりき。

Outside of Issa, who uses slang, he has a rival in both Chinese and ancient languages.

用語の一点においても蕪村は俳句界独歩の人なり。

In terms of terms, Buson is a person who is unique in the haiku world.

句法

Syntax

 句法は言語の接続をいふ。

The syntax is language connection.

俳句の句法は貞享、元禄に定まりて享保、宝暦を経て少しも動かず。

The haiku syntax does not move at all after Jokyo, Genroku, Kyoho, and Horeki.

むしろ元禄に変化したるだけの変化さへ失ひ、「何や」「何かな」一点張の極めて単調なる者となりをはりて、ただ時に檀林一派及び鬼貫らの奇を弄するあるのみ。

Rather, he loses to the change that has changed to Genroku, and becomes an extremely monotonous person with "something" and "something", and sometimes only plays with the strangeness of the Danrin faction and Onitsura.

この際に当りて蕪村は句法の上に種々工夫を試みあるいは漢詩的に、あるいは古文的に、古人のいまだかつて作らざりし者を数多造り出せり。

At this time, Buson tried various ideas on the phrase, or created many old people who were still made by Chinese poetry or ancient writing.

春雨やいざよふ月の海|半

Vermicelli and the sea of the moon | Half

春風や堤長うして家遠し

Spring breeze and the length of the bank

雉打て帰る家路の日は高し

The day of the home trip to the pheasant is high

玉川に高野の花や流れ去る

Takano flowers and flowing away in Tamagawa

祇や鑑や髭に落花をひねりけり

Twist the fallen flowers on the gem, the book, and the beard

桜狩美人の腹や減却す

Sakurakari beauty's belly and reduction

出べくとして出ずなりぬ梅の宿

Ume no Yado that has to go out

菜の花や月は東に日は西に

Rape blossoms and the moon to the east and the sun to the west

裏門の寺に逢著す蓬かな

Mugwort written by Ai at the temple on the back gate

山彦の南はいづち春の暮

Yamabiko's South is Izuchi Spring Life

月に対す君に投網の水煙

Cast net hookah for you against the moon

掛香や唖の娘の人となり

Becoming the daughter of Kakeka and Mute

鮓を圧す石上に詩を題すべく

To give a poem on the stone that presses the sushi

夏山や京尽し飛ぶ鷺一つ

One heron flying in Natsuyama and Kyoto

浅川の西し東す若葉かな

Wakaba west and east of Asakawa

麓なる我蕎麦存す野分かな

I wonder if there is a soba noodle at the foot of the mountain

蘭|夕狐のくれし奇楠を※ん

Ran | Evening fox's camphor tree *

漁家寒し酒に頭の雪を焼く

Fisherman Burns the snow on his head to cold sake

頭巾二つ一つは人に参らせん

Two hoods do not come to people

我も死して碑にほとりせん枯尾花 (蕉翁碑)

I also died and the monument was a dead flower (Shooh monument)

の如きは漢文より来りし句法なり。

Like is a syntax that comes from Chinese writing.

蕪村|最多くこの種の句法を為す。

Buson | Most often use this kind of syntax.

しのゝめや鵜をのがれたる魚浅し

Shallow fish that can escape the cormorants and cormorants

鮓桶を洗へば浅き遊魚かな

If you wash the sushi tub, it's a shallow play fish

古井戸や蚊に飛ぶ魚の音暗し

The sound of fish flying to old wells and mosquitoes

「魚浅し」、「音暗し」などいへる警語を用ゐたるは漢詩より得たるものならん。

You can't get the word "fish shallow", "sound darkness", etc. from Chinese poetry.

従来の国文いまだこの種の工夫なし。

Traditional national language There is still no ingenuity of this kind.

陽炎や名も知らぬ虫の白き飛ぶ

White flight of heat haze and unknown insects

橋なくて日暮れんとする春の水

Spring water at nightfall without a bridge

罌粟の花まがきすべくもあらぬかな

I wonder if it's possible to make a poppy flower

の如きは古文より来る者、

Those who come from ancient texts, such as

春の水|背戸に田つくらんとぞ思ふ

Spring water | I think it's a rice field on the back door

白蓮を剪らんとぞ思ふ僧のさま

A monk who thinks about white lotus

 この「とぞ思ふ」といふは和歌より取り来りし者なり。

This "Tozo Shifu" is a person who has taken over from Waka poems.

その外

Outside

衣がへ野路の人はつかに白し

The person whose clothes are crazy is white

蚊の声す忍冬の花散るたびに

Mosquito's voice Shinobi Winter flowers Every time they fall

水かれ/″\蓼かあらぬか蕎麦か否か

Water shavings / ″ \ Tate or Aranuka Soba

の如きあり。

There is like.

 元禄以来形容語は極めて必要なる者の外俳句には用ゐられざりき。

Since Genroku, adjectives have been used for haiku outside of those who are extremely necessary.

いたづらに場所|塞ぎを為すのみにて、ありてもなくても意義に大差なしとの意なりしならん。

Unnecessarily place | It doesn't mean that there is no big difference in significance with or without just closing it.

しかれども形容語は句を活動せしめ印象を明瞭ならしむるにはこれを用ゐて効多し。

However, adjectives are useful for activating phrases and clarifying impressions.

蕪村は巧にこれを用ゐ、殊に中七音の中に簡単なる形容詞を用うることに長じたり。

Buson skillfully used this, especially the ability to use simple adjectives in the middle seven tones.

水の粉やあるじかしこき後家の君

Water powder and a certain kid

尼寺や善き蚊帳垂るゝ宵月夜

Nanji and good mosquito nets hang down ゝ Evening moonlit night

柚の花や能酒蔵す塀の内

Inside the fence of Yuzuhana and Noh sake brewery

手燭して善き蒲団出す夜寒かな

It's cold at night when you make a candle and put out a good futon

緑子の頭巾眉深きいとほしみ

Midoriko's hood, deep eyebrows and Hoshimi

真結びの足袋はしたなき給仕かな

Is it a waitperson without a reef knot socks?

宿かへて火燵嬉しき在処

Whereabouts of the inn

 後の形容詞を用ゐる者、多くは句勢にたるみを生じてかへつて一句の病と為る。

Those who use the later adjectives, many of them have slack in the phrase and become ill with a single phrase.

蕪村の簡勁と適切とに及ばざる遠し。

Buson's simple and unreasonable distance.

 蕪村の句は堅くしまりて揺かぬがその特色なり。

Buson's phrase is tight and unwavering, but it is a feature.

故に無形の語少く有形の語多し。

Therefore, there are few intangible words and many tangible words.

簡勁の語多く冗漫の語少し。

A lot of simple words and a few joke words.

しかるに彼に一つの癖ありて或る形容詞に限り長きを厭はず、しばしばこれを句尾に置く。

However, he has one habit, and he should be willing to use a certain adjective for a long time, often ending it.

つゝじ咲て石うつしたる嬉しさよ

I'm glad that it blooms and stones move

更衣|八瀬の里人ゆかしさよ

Koui | Yase no Satojin Yukashi Sayo

顔白き子のうれしさよ枕蚊帳

The joy of a white-faced child Pillow mosquito net

五月雨の大井越えたるかしこさよ

It ’s a good idea to cross Oi in the rain of May.

夏川を越す嬉しさよ手に草履

The joy of crossing Natsukawa, sandals in your hands

小鳥来る音嬉しさよ板庇

The sound of the little bird coming

鋸の音貧しさよ夜半の冬

The sound of the saw is poor, winter in the middle of the night

の如きこれなり。

This is like this.

普通に嬉しと思ふ時嬉しといはば俳句は無味になりをはらん、まして嬉しさよと長く言はんは猶更の事なり。

When I think I'm happy, haiku isn't tasteless, let alone happy, and it's a long time to say that I'm happy.

嬉しさよといはねば感情を現す能はざる時にのみ用ゐたる蕪村の句は、固よりこの語を無造作に置きたるにあらず。

Buson's phrase, which is used only when there is no ability to express emotions unless it is happy, does not mean that this word is placed casually.

更に驚くべきは蕪村が一句の結尾に「に」という手爾葉を用ゐたる事なり。

What is even more surprising is that Buson uses a hand-shaped leaf called "ni" at the end of the phrase.

例へば

To example

帰る雁田毎の月の曇る夜に

On the cloudy night of the moon every month

菜の花や月は東に日は西に

Rape blossoms and the moon to the east and the sun to the west

春の夜や宵曙の其中に

In the spring night or in the evening

畑打や鳥さへ鳴かぬ山陰に

In the San'in region where you can't beat the fields and birds

時鳥平安城をすぢかひに

Tokitori Heian Castle

蚊の声す忍冬の花散るたびに

Mosquito's voice Shinobi Winter flowers Every time they fall

広庭の牡丹や天の一方に

On one side of the peony or heaven in the large garden

庵の月あるじを問へば芋掘りに

If you ask the moon of hermitage, you can dig potatoes.

狐火や髑髏に雨のたまる夜に

On a night when it rains on a fox fire or a skull

 常人をしてこの句法に倣はしめば必ずや失敗に終はらん、手爾葉の結尾を以て一句を操る者、蕪村の蕪村たる所以なり。

If you imitate this phrase as an ordinary person, you will surely end up in failure, and it is the reason why Buson is a person who manipulates a phrase with the tail of a hand-made leaf.